Ebola is an uncommon deadly virus causing bleeding internally and externally. It spreads throughout the patient’s body damaging the immune system and other vital body organs. Excessive bleeding causes a decrease in the blood clotting cells. With a low level of clotting and uncontrollable bleeding, the person eventually gets infected.
It’s quite difficult to distinguish Ebola virus from other infectious diseases like malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis. The virus comes to human from wild animals and spreads in the human race by direct contact. Several diagnostic tests are done for Ebola infection. Some of the tests include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum neutralization test, RT-PCR assay, virus culture, and electron microscopy.
Treatment for Ebola
Till now, there is no standard treatment for Ebola virus. Supportive therapies and experimental treatments are available that are not a permanent Ebola cure but, are used to relieve the symptoms. Rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids is must to enhance chances of survival. Potential medical treatments via blood products, immune therapies, and drugs are currently under trial to prove their efficiency. Fast supportive treatment is the only key to survival.
Ebola is caused by a virus, not a bacterium. Finding treatment for a viral disease is extremely difficult. Viruses are tiny molecules produce a moderate amount of proteins that are difficult to target for treatment. Due to small target proteins, it’s difficult to develop an Ebola vaccine. The virus evolves very quickly thus it is difficult to predict whether a vaccine developed today would protect the future outbreaks or not.
Ebola virus has a high mortality rate. Hence, the researchers must work with special facilities and high safety precautions to prevent spreading. This has led to a limited number of an experiment in the global vaccine market. The virus develops inside the body at a very quick rate that makes the survival period to short. With short survival period and limited infected individuals, it is difficult to study the biological features of the virus. This eventually increases the difficulty in developing an Ebola vaccine.
Many Ebola vaccines have been developed but most of them were not approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans. In the year 2016, a vaccine named VSV-EBOV vaccine is proved to be 70–100% effective against the Ebola virus. This is the first effective Ebola vaccine till now. The vaccines were developed by Merck, Sharpe & Dohme. The vaccine is still not a permanent cure for the disease. But, it is effective to a greater extent. Global vaccine market is still putting a lot of efforts to develop a full proof vaccine for the Ebola virus.