Alport syndrome is a kind of chronic kidney disease; it is an inherited disease that makes damage the kidneys by the progressive damage to the glomerulus – the area of the kidney responsible for filtering blood.
Scientists have shown that extracellular vesicles, is a tiny protein filled structures which are isolated from the amniotic liquid stem cells (AFSCs) can be utilized to effectively slow the progression of kidney damage in mice with a kind of chronic kidney disease.
‘Vesicles may help to reestablish normal kidney damage by controlling the progression of endothelial damage in the filtration unit of the kidney’.
The discoveries, by a study group at the Saban Research Institute of Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, provide new insights of knowledge about the mechanisms of kidney infection and point to a new approach for improved therapies.
Outcomes of the examination were recently published online in Scientific Reports. Alport syndrome in patients, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be elevated early on in the disease. Increased VEGF causes scar tissue and serious damage to the cells that line the surface of blood vessels in the glomeruli eventually causes kidney disappointment.
Laura Perin, Ph.D., co-director of the GOFARR Laboratory for Organ Regenerative Research and Cell Therapeutics in Urology and principal investigator of the study said, “When children born with Alport syndrome reach adult life, they regularly require dialysis to clear the loss from their blood and will require a kidney transplant”.
Perin’s study team showed that particularly in mice with Alport syndrome, injection of AFSCs could delay the progression of renal fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis. But, the mechanisms responsible for this therapeutic impact had not been resolved.
The research group hypothesized that through the release of the extracellular vesicle, AFSCs give this protection to the kidney, tiny membrane surrounded structures that contain receptors on their surface that can bind VEGF and decrease its biological activity on renal cells. The scientists isolated these vesicles and to control cell homeostasis and maintain a stable level of functioning, they found that could effectively target the glomerulus.
“Sargis Sedrakyan, Ph.D., who is the first author on the paper said, we have shown that these vesicles can be utilized to regulate VEGF activity and keep the glomerular capillary damage”.
“To help reestablish normal kidney work by curbing the progression of endothelial damage in the filtration unit of the kidney, we can efficiently utilize the vesicles.”
While vesicles already have been appeared to be promising targets for developing treatments, this examination represents to the first time when they have been applied to glomerular disease by preventing endothelial damage.For chronic kidney disease, the finding represents a potential glomerulus- targeted intervention.
Perin said, “That we can modify the amount in the area that requires treatment and the types of extracellular vesicles that we inject and they seem to home to and acting directly, is the advantage of this approach.”
The group’s further study is for all patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease, to validate the stem cell-derived vesicle in different types of kidney disease with the final aim of finding a treatment that is effective.