Roller compaction technology has become an increasingly important technology for the production of granules. Roller compaction is a dry granulation process that is used in pharmaceutical industry to create dry granules. The granules are created with suitable densification, drug content uniformity and powder flowability for manufacturing solid dosage forms like capsules and tablets.
In dry granulation process, roller compaction is a unit operation in which the agglomeration of the powder containing active ingredients and excipients are seen. The granules are formed by blending the powdered form of ingredients and excipients and by milling post roller compaction. The granules that are resulted after this tedious process is then blended in a blender and utilised for compression to form the final products i.e., tablets or for capsule fillings.
Compaction in Pharmaceutical Industry
During the compaction process, these ingredients are subjected to mechanical force. The effect of mechanical forces is highly important in pharmaceutical industry for manufacturing the granules and tabletting.
The compaction can be studied in two stages:
During the compression phase, there is a huge decline in the bulk volume of the raw material by plastic deformation.
The compaction principle is mainly based on the space. Space is generally divided into three regions:
- Slip region
Slip region is also called as feeding zone. The powdered components slip from the roll surface in this region. The rearrangements of powdered particles and the de aeration of the powder take place at the same time when the powder slips from the roller surface.
- Nip region
The nip region is commonly referred as the compaction zone and in this region, the material gets trapped between the rollers. The rollers will be moving at the same speed of roller surface. The plastic deformation takes place in the between the rollers.
The nip region got its name due to the angle that is formed on the boundary of the feeding zone and compaction zone. The angle is referred as the nip angle. For better compaction of the particle, the nip angle must be sufficiently large.
- Extrusion region
In this region, the roller gaps gradually increase and the compacted ribbon gets released from the rolls. This region is also called as the release zone.
Purpose of Roller compaction
Roller compaction technology plays an important role in the pharmaceutical industry. The main purpose of using the roller compaction is:
- It can improve the powdered components flow properties.
- It can help in avoiding the wet granulation induced degradation
- Can enhance the product stability by preventing segregation
- Reduces the bulk volume
- Minimizes the storage volume and improves the transport efficiencies.
Advantages of Roller compaction in Pharmaceutical Industry
The pharmaceutical industry has recently started extensive use of roller compaction for the following reasons:
- Roller compaction is suitable for heat labile
- It moisturises the sensitive products
- Improves the powder flow properties
- It doesn’t require more personal cost as it is an economical process
- Environmental friendly
- Particle segregation can be prevented
Roller Compaction: Process Analytical Tools
These compact rollers are able to control and measure all product quality relevant parameters that fulfil the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. The quality relevant parameters generally include the force, gap and roll speed that is required for a manufacturing process.